Implementing the Treaty in Nepal: new book

Joshi BK, P Chaudhary, D Upadhya and R Vernooy (editors). 2016. Implementing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; Nepal Agricultural Research Council and Ministry of Agricultural Development, Kathmandu, Nepal; and Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.

This book, with contributions from national partners in Nepal and Bioversity International, documents the results of the research and capacity development efforts to implement the ITPGRFA in Nepal. Its chapters cover five main interrelated themes: national-level multi-lateral system policy development; policy actors and networks; germplasm flows and interdependence; farmers’ involvement; and technology transfer. ITPGRFA implementation in Nepal has made considerable progress, but the policy environment in Nepal could be further improved. A positive development is the drafting of new policy and legal instruments, such as the agro-biodiversity conservation and utilization act and regulations.

with-joshi-2

Co-editors BK Joshi and Ronnie Vernooy receive the first copy of the book. Photo: Bioversity International

The book can be freely downloaded.

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=244&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=8625&cHash=3d2de1c28f8bb265161c72cf4d3bdfb5

Outputs by GRPI project partners

We are delighted to share news about some outputs recently made available from the national teams in the GRPI2 project, and others that are under development, but will be finished soon.  Some of these are available electronically and we include the links.

Bhutan
1.    National Biodiversity Centre (NBC). (forthcoming) A study on the history of the introduction and adoption of important food crops in Bhutan. Rice, Maize, Potato and Chili. NBC, Bhutan.
2.    Phuntsho, U. and Vernooy, R. (in press). Making technology transfer work: case studies of the food processing sector in Bhutan.
3.    Tamang, A. and Dukpa, G. (in press). Bhutan: the Bumthang community seed bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.

Burkina Faso
1.    Jade (2014). Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture: 10 questions pour en comprendre l’essentiel (un poster à l’intention des chercheurs)/a poster for researchers. Download the file.
2.    Jade (2014). Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (un dépliant en français reprenant l’essentiel des messages du traité)/a leaflet summarizing the key elements of the Treaty. Download the file.
3.    Jade (2014). Banque de genes: Le coffre-fort de la future generation (bande dessinée vidéo en français scénarisant le contenu du traité et de son système multilateral). Idée originale: Souleymane Ouattara. Scénario: Souleymane Ouattara, Gaoussou Nabaloum et Pascal Ouédraogo, alias ‘Ledon’ (an animated video about the Treaty and the MLS)
4.    Jade (2014). Et si le tô venait à disparaître? (un film sur les enjeux du traité à partir de cas et de témoignages d’acteurs) Réalisation: Souleymane Ouattara. (a film about the Treaty based on examples and viewpoints)
5.    Jade (2014) Les graines de vie d’hier, d’aujourd’hui et de demain (un magazine radiophonique en langue nationale mooré de 45 minutes). Réalisation: Gaoussou Nabaloum. (a radio broadcast in the Moore’ language about the Treaty)

Costa Rica
1.    Cabrera Medaglia, J. (2014) La implementación del Tratado Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica : Recomendaciones legales y de política. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica . Download the file.
2.    Cabrera Medaglia, J. (2014) Indentificación de las posibles autoridades nacionales competentes para la promoción de la implementación del Tratado Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica. Download the file.
3.    CONAREFI (2014) (set of fact sheets). Fortalecimiento de las capacidades nacionales para la implementación del Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica
4.    Elizondo Porras, F.L., Araya Villalobos, R., Hernández Fonseca, J.C. Martínez Umaña, K. (in press). Costa Rica: Unión de Semilleros del Sur.  In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.
5.    Vásquez Morera, N. and Solano Sánchez, W. (2014). Diagnóstico de instituciones nacionales y regionales que conservan recursos fitogenéticos para alimentación y agricultura en Costa Rica. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica

Guatemala
1.    Galluzzi, G. and Lapeña, I. (in press). Guatemala: Community seed reserves restore maize diversity. .  In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.
2.    Lapeña, I., Vásquez, F. and Say, E. (2014). El Tratado Internacional sobre Recursos Fitogenéticos para La Alimentación y la Agricultura (TIRFAA) en Guatemala. Proceso de implementación del Sistema Multilateral de Acceso y Distribución de Beneficios. Download the file.

Nepal
1.    Dilli, J., Manisha, J. and Pitambar, S. (in press). Nepal: the community seed bank in Tamaphok. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge

Rwanda
1.    Policy brief (forthcoming). Implementing the ITPGRFA and Nagoya protocol in Rwanda: implications for ABS.
2.    Niyibigira T., Nyirigira A. and Otieno G. (forthcoming). Stakeholders in Technology transfer in Rwanda: the case of Biofortified beans.
3.    Dusengemungu, L., Ndacyayisenga, T., Otieno, G., Nyirigira, A.R. and Gapusi, J.W. (in press). Rwanda: the Rubaya community gene bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge

Uganda
1.    Zaake E., Mulumba J.W., Otieno G. and Ogwal R. (forthcoming). The History of Crops Domestication and Interdependence: Case studies of Major Staples in Uganda.
2.    Mulumba J.W., Otieno G. and Ogwal R. (forthcoming). Networks matter: Systemic interactions and coalitions in the implementation of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Uganda.
3.    Adokoracha, J.; Kiwukaa, C., Zaakea, E.; Nankya, R. and Mulumba, J.W. (forthcoming). Stakeholders involvement in technology transfer in Uganda.
4.    Policy brief (forthcoming) Policy implementation and legal space for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) in Uganda.
5.    Mulumba, J.W., Nankya, R., Kiwuka, C., Adokorach, J., Otieno, G., Kyomugisha, M. Fadda, C. and Jarvis, D.I. (in press) Uganda: the Kiziba community gene bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.

Supporting international efforts to pool and conserve crop genetic resources in times of radical legal change

Intellectual Property Rights - Legal and Economic challenges for Development. Oxford University Press

Intellectual Property Rights – Legal and Economic Challenges for Development

Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz and the editors of Intellectual Property Rights – Legal and Economic Challenges for Development, published by Oxford University Press, said that it is urgent that the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is fully implemented. They endorse the analysis of Michael Halewood in his chapter ‘International efforts to pool and conserve crop genetic resources in times of radical legal change.  Read more on the Bioversity website.

Formation sur les systèmes de semences robustes face aux changements climatiques

Ouagadougou, 26 au 28 mai 2014

Par Koffi Emmanuel Kassin et Edmond Koffi

Du 26 au 28 mai 2014, nous avons pris part à atelier de formation sur les systèmes de semences robustes face aux changements climatiques organisé par l’INERA et Bioversity International à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Cet atelier s’inscrit dans le cadre du renforcement de capacités nationales pour la mise en œuvre du Traité International sur les Ressources Phytogénétiques pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture (TIRPGAA). Ont pris part à cette formation une vingtaine de participants (chercheurs, enseignants chercheurs et étudiants) venus de la Côte d’Ivoire et du Burkina Faso.

Participants de l'atelier Photo: Ronnie Vernooy

Participants de l’atelier
Photo: Ronnie Vernooy

Trois objectifs étaient assignés à cette rencontre. Il s’agissait d’une part, d’initier les participants aux outils du Système d’Information Géographique (SIG) pour la recherche de ressources phytogénétiques dans un contexte de changements climatiques, d’autre part de les familiariser à l’utilisation des outils SIG à travers des exercices pratiques à partir des données provenant des pays respectifs et enfin d’identifier les étapes prochaines pour l’application des outils dans des projets de recherche au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire. La formation a été dispensée par Ronnie Vernooy de Bioversity International (Rome) et Gloria Otieno de Bioversity international Uganda avec l’appui de Sognigbe N’Danikou de Bioversity International Benin. Outre les chercheurs du CNRA, l’équipe de la Côte d’Ivoire comprenait deux enseignants chercheurs : Dr DIBI Pauline et Dr Koné Moussa de l’UFR Géographie Tropicale de l’Université Félix Houphouët Boigny.

Le programme de l’atelier d’une durée de trois jours s’est articulé autour de 4 points essentiels : 1. Introduction au cycle de recherche sur les systèmes de semences robustes face aux changements climatiques; 2. Acquisition, préparation des données d’accession et installation des logiciels; 3. Initiation aux outils DIVA-GIS et Analogue climatique; 4. Exercice de groupe.

DIVA-GIS et Analogue climatique

DIVA-GIS qui est un logiciel gratuit de cartographie sur internet. Initiation à DIVA-GIS a porté sur comment : élaborer des cartes de distribution à différentes échelles de la diversité biologique ; extraire les données climatiques des points de collecte des accessions ; prédire la présence d’espèces en fonction du climat actuel (1970-2000) et futur (2020-2050) en utilisant BIOCLIM. Avec l’outil « Analogue climatique » nous avons fait des simulations de changements climatiques, afin d’identifier les ressources adaptées à chaque type de scenario. En effet, cet outil est efficace pour : – prévoir l’agriculture de demain ; – déterminer des sites analogues actuels et futurs à partir de 19 indices bioclimatiques.

L’exercice de groupe a consisté à vérifier les connaissances acquises lors de la phase précédente. Ainsi, les participants ont été répartis en trois groupes dont deux pour le Burkina Faso et 1 pour la Cote d’Ivoire. Chaque équipe a eu à travailler sur les données nationales pour produire des cartes de répartition des accessions en fonction des zones climatiques et déterminer des sites analogues actuels et futurs. Les travaux des différentes équipes ont été présentés puis critiqués avant la clôture de l’atelier.

 

Participants de Côte d’Ivoire Photo: Ronnie Vernooy

Participants de Côte d’Ivoire
Photo: Ronnie Vernooy

Apprentissages

Au cours de la formation, avons vu quelques aspects de l’utilisation des outils SIG. Toutefois, ils peuvent contribuer à mettre à jour les informations sur les sites de collecte des ressources phytogénétiques, réaliser un plan de la diversité des cultures au niveau global ou par pays, analyser et caractériser la diversité des ressources phytogénétiques ou faire une analyse complémentaire de la biodiversité pour la combinaison de traits et enfin identifier les sites correspondants potentiels pour la culture de variétés dans des conditions de stress biotiques et abiotiques.

Ces outils peuvent également permettre de faire une classification des collections basées sur le critère de l’adaptation climatique, fournir des informations climatiques (pluie mensuelle, température minimale et maximale) pour les sites de collecte individuels, élaborer des cartes climatiques de divers paramètres climatiques et leurs combinaisons. Ils peuvent également permettre de définir des lignes directrices pour développer des stratégies de collecte de nouvelles collections ainsi que pour la re-collecte du matériel génétique.

Ces outils apparaissent indispensables pour les chercheurs, particulièrement les sélectionneurs et les gestionnaires des ressources phytogénétiques. Une restitution à l’attention de ces sélectionneurs ainsi que des géographes et de tous ceux qui sont impliqués dans des travaux touchant au changement climatique s’avère nécessaire en vue d’une plus large diffusion de ces outils et d’une dissémination étendue des connaissances dans ce domaine.

 

 

 

 

New book – Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons

Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons

Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons

We are very pleased to announce the publication of Crop Genetic Resources as a Global Commons: Challenges in International Law and Governance.

The book investigates how the collective pooling and management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture can be supported through access and benefit sharing laws. Since the most important recent development in the field has been the creation of the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing under the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, many of the chapters in this book focus on that system.

The book analyzes a range of relevant background factors, including the impact of climate change on countries’ interdependence on plant genetic resources, germplasm flows in and out of international genebanks, crops specfic research programs, and countries as a whole. It considers the historical development and mechanics of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing.  It provides space for leaders in the field to reflect on what has worked well, and where challenges remain in terms of the multilateral system’s performance as a central feature in a global system of collective action to conserve, and sustainably use plant genetic diversity, and equitably share benefits derived from that use. Finally, it identifies options for policy initiatives to further strengthen the support which the multilateral system provides the global crop commons.

Here is what some reviewers have said about the book so far.

“A rigorous, in-depth analysis of successful commons governance on a global scale has long been an under-researched, often overlooked and poorly understood area of study. Yet the critical importance collaborative management of global resources requires urgent attention. In this groundbreaking volume, Halewood, Noriega, and Louafi have assembled an international group of leading scholars and practitioners to systematically guide us through the complex terrain of crop genetic resources and agricultural biodiversity as global commons. The thoroughness of the analysis along with the lessons learned from practical applications will serve as indispensable tools for students of all types of global-commons resources.” – Charlotte Hess, co-editor with Elinor Ostrom of ‘Understanding Knowledge as a Commons’ and Associate Dean for Research, Collections, and Scholarly Communication for Syracuse University Library

“The preservation and enhancement of agrobiodiversity is of huge importance in a world that shall witness more disruptive climate shocks in the future, and in which food-deficit regions shall be increasingly dependent on food-surplus regions. This volume makes a strong case for governing plant genetic resources in ways that promote the evolution and conservation of agrobiodiversity, and to ensure that they are available to be used by all regions to adapt better to a changing environment. Yet, it is more than just another book about the governance of natural resources by the best experts in the field: it is also an indispensable tool to understand the future of agriculture in a world of dwindling resources and biodiversity loss.” – Olivier de Schutter, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 

“These meticulous studies of the FAO Treaty are of major theoretical and empirical importance to scholars and practitioners seeking a workable, transnational regime to govern all genetic resources for research and benefit sharing under the evolving international legal framework.” – Jerome H. Reichman, Bunyan S. Womble Professor of Law, Duke Law School, USA

Over forty academics and practioners working in the field of agricultural biodiversity have contributed to 19 chapters.

More details about the book are available from Routledge.

This title is the fourth in the ‘Issues in Agricultural Biodiversity’ series co-published by Routledge and Bioversity International.

We have some copies available, for free, for libraries, research and farmers’ organziations in developing countries. Please contact bio-policy[at]cgiar.org to request a copy. Remember to provide a full mailing address.

CGIAR centres and climate change; new CCAFS working paper

Aside

There’s one optimistic conclusion for agriculture under climate change: modelling the future suggests that for many places, the climate they face in 20 or 30 years is already present somewhere on Earth. Farmers and plant scientists can prepare for the future by using something like the Climate Analogues Tool to suggest places to look for crop and varieties that might to some extent be pre-adapted to predicted conditions [http://gismap.ciat.cgiar.org/analogues/].

The next problem, of course, is to access that genetic diversity.

The free movement of the genetic resources themselves and information about them is thus a crucial element in efforts to adapt agriculture to climate change.

A new study of how plant genetic resources move into and out of the CGIAR, carried out for the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) program by researchers at Bioversity International and partners, reveals the invisible flows of material and identifies some of the blockages. CGIAR genebanks keep data on the countries accessions come from and the countries that request accessions, and those data are publically available through the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The study reveals that countries are hugely interdependent on one another, and that the multilateral access and benefit-sharing system of the Treaty is enhancing the availability of genetic resources. Some genebanks have sent material to more than 150 countries. And individual countries have received accessions from a similar number of other countries. But there is also troubling evidence that blockages to the flow are becoming more frequent and harder to get around.

CGIAR centres are themselves adapting in response to climate change. Among these changes are closer direct interactions with farmers, national extension services, NGOs and aid agencies and closer cooperation with the private sector. The details of these broader operational strategies, along with the information on flows, can be found in a working paper based on the new study: Flows under stress: availaibility of plant genetic resources in times of climate and policy change, by Isabel López-Noriega, Gea Galluzzi, Michael Halewood, Ronnie Vernooy, Enrico Bertacchini, Devendra Gauchan and Eric Welch. Link to the paper: http://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/21225

The main findings of the paper will be summarized in three forthcoming CCAFS blogs which will be posted on September 14, 21, and 28 [http://ccafs.cgiar.org/blog]. The authors welcome comments and observations which can be posted directly on the CCAFS blog. Or alternatively, send them to Ronnie Vernooy, r.vernooy@cgiar.org

GRPI 2 research planning workshop report

From May 2-4, 2012, the 8 country teams involved in the GRPI 2 project held an international workshop to discuss and plan research agendas on: policy actors and networks, germplasm flows and interdependence, technology transfer, and farmers’ involvement (supporting community seed banks). This report summarizes the outcomes of the workshop.

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=19&no_cache=1&user_bioversitypublications_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=6930