Community seed banks: concept and practice. Facilitator handbook.

Over three decades, a number of international and national organizations have provided technical and financial support to community seed banks around the world. To our knowledge, only a few of these organizations have developed and published a practical guide about how they have offered this support. LI-BIRD is one such organization, but their community seed bank guide is in the Nepali language. To fill this gap, we offer this handbook, which is based on our own experience, but also takes into consideration what other colleagues have accomplished to advance research and capacity development regarding community seed banks. The handbook is organized as a guide for facilitators — people who work in the field with farmers and their organizations on issues of seed conservation and sustainable use.

The methodological approach that we promote is based on participatory learning, where facilitators and learners interact actively, make use of their experience, and learn together. Lecturing is kept to a minimum. Most of the learning takes place through dynamic exercises in which learners are invited to use and reflect on their own experience and/or on the experience of others (captured in practical case studies, for example). These experiences can cover any aspect of agricultural and rural development that involves farmers. You can find the handbook here: http://www.bioversityinternational.org/e-library/publications/detail/community-seed-banks-concept-and-practice/

The handbook is organized in nine modules, as follows: Continue reading

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L’accentuation d’un risque de perte des ressources génétiques dans le contexte du changement climatique au Burkina Faso

L’équipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr.Joseph KI-ZERBO du Burkina Faso, lauréat du 11e Forum national Recherche Scientifique et des Innovations Technologies (FRSIT) portant sur le thème Adaptation et résilience au changement climatique : Place et rôle de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation, présente en quelques lignes l’étude de sa recherche.

L’étude Impact du changement climatique sur la diversité génétique: une étude de cas à partir d’une collection de variétés traditionnelles de mil [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] du Burkina Faso conduite par L’équipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr.Joseph KI-ZERBO du Burkina Faso présentée à l’occasion du 11e Forum national Recherche Scientifique et des Innovations Technologies (FRSIT) a obtenu deux prix dont celui du prix du Président du Faso et celui de l’Université Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO.

Dans le contexte du changement climatique dont l’Afrique Subsaharienne est victime depuis plusieurs décennies, la perte de la biodiversité agricole se pose avec acuité.

Une recherche de l’Equipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO observe que parmi les espèces céréalières, le mil présente un faible taux de diversité génétique dans les aires de son centre d’origine comme le Burkina Faso.

L’équipe a étudié l’effet des précipitations sur les dates de semis durant les trois décennies passées, la variabilité et le polymorphisme à partir d’une collection du mil réalisée à l’échelle nationale. Il a montré que ce faible taux de diversité génétique s’explique par le changement climatique qui a conduit à un décalage progressif des dates de semis des agriculteurs ruraux, d’où l’abandon des variétés les moins rustiques et cela inquiet pour l’avenir, la diversité de cette ressource génétique en tenant compte d’un changement climatique annoncé.

Le mil est réputé être la meilleure céréale en ce qui concerne la contribution des plantes cultivées dans la sécurité alimentaire pour des millions de populations vivant en Afrique Subsaharienne. Le mil a un impact significatif dans l’économie du pays. La consommation moyenne actuelle de mil par jour et par habitant au Burkina Faso est d’environ 70 grammes. Si les auteurs ont étudié le mil, culture prédominante au Burkina Faso, après le sorgho, ils affirment que l’impact du changement climatique va au-delà de cette espèce et interpelle les acteurs du politique agricole à initier des stratégies de conservation et de gestion des ressources génétiques afin de répondre à une meilleure adaptation du changement climatique.

Mais, pour que chaque communauté rurale puisse obtenir un apport nutritionnel lié à ses habitudes alimentaires, il a lieu à une conservation de la diversité génétique par les programmes de recherche agricoles nationaux. Une des limitations de développement de cette espèce est liée au fait qu’elle est pratiquée dans les zones les plus marginales et mal conservée. Ces variétés traditionnelles du mil parmi lesquelles figurent les meilleures souches de tolérance au changement climatique, à certaines maladies et autres facteurs pourraient présenter une solution pour accroître le potentiel d’utilisation de cette espèce dans le contexte du changement climatique.

La recherche est realisée dans le cadre du projet Renforcement des capacités nationales pour la mise en oeuvre du Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture au Burkina Faso, avec l’appui technique de Bioversity International et le soutien financier du gouvernement de la Hollande.

Pour plus de détails sur la communication, personnes à contacter :

Bougma Lardia Ali, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

Sawadogo Mahamadou, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

Ouédraogo Hamed Mahamadi, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

 

 

Implementing the Treaty in Nepal: new book

Joshi BK, P Chaudhary, D Upadhya and R Vernooy (editors). 2016. Implementing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; Nepal Agricultural Research Council and Ministry of Agricultural Development, Kathmandu, Nepal; and Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.

This book, with contributions from national partners in Nepal and Bioversity International, documents the results of the research and capacity development efforts to implement the ITPGRFA in Nepal. Its chapters cover five main interrelated themes: national-level multi-lateral system policy development; policy actors and networks; germplasm flows and interdependence; farmers’ involvement; and technology transfer. ITPGRFA implementation in Nepal has made considerable progress, but the policy environment in Nepal could be further improved. A positive development is the drafting of new policy and legal instruments, such as the agro-biodiversity conservation and utilization act and regulations.

with-joshi-2

Co-editors BK Joshi and Ronnie Vernooy receive the first copy of the book. Photo: Bioversity International

The book can be freely downloaded.

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=244&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=8625&cHash=3d2de1c28f8bb265161c72cf4d3bdfb5

Climate change adaptation and mutually supportive implementation of access and benefit sharing policies in Uganda

By Gloria Otieno, John Wasswa Mulumba and Francis Ogwal

Climate change is likely to increase average temperatures in Uganda by 1.5 ºC in the next 20 years and 4.3 ºC by the 2080s. Changes in annual rainfall patterns and total amount of annual rainfall are also expected. Uganda may become wetter on average. The increase in rainfall may be unevenly distributed in space and time influenced by more extreme or more frequent periods of intense rainfall. Besides changes in rainfall, changes in temperature are likely to have significant implications for agriculture, water resources, food security, and natural resource management.  Agriculture is likely to be one of the most affected sectors with repercussions on livelihoods of farmers, food security and the environment. The effects of climate change could threaten the survival of crop genetic resources and affect future adaptive capacity. If properly maintained, crop genetic resources will be essential to climate change adaptation in farmer’s fields and for breeding programs. A strategy for climate change adaptation is to ensure facilitated access to genetic resources at national and international levels through agreements such as the multilateral system of Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) and the CBD Nagoya protocol. The problem of the current germplasm exchange system is the potential limit on the amount of germplasm that farmers and plant breeders may access from both farmers fields and international and national centres that have ex situ collections due to the prevailing national and international policy and regulatory framework.

A strategy for adaptation to climate change using crop diversity and GIS modelling

Research by Bioversity international and the National Agricultural Research Organization’s Plant Genetic Resources center (NARO-PGRC) reveals that the diversity of genetic traits of crops represents our most important resource for adapting agriculture to the 21st century climate change. The high diversity within common bean in Uganda and East Africa can be used to adapt local farmers’ systems to climate change. Indeed, an important means for small-scale farmers to adapt to climate change is by shifting their crop varieties to those better suited to future environmental conditions. GIS-based selection of varieties is potentially a rapid and cost-effective way to find new and better adapted varieties. GIS tools can be used to search for varieties that have been collected in climatic conditions that are similar to the present and future climate conditions in a particular site.

Two communities, Hoima and Mbarara –Sheema district in Uganda, were identified by national partners as predominantly bean growing areas that are facing climate related stresses of increased temperature, shifting seasons and high erratic rainfall. Beans are the most important source of protein in the country. The projected climate in 2050 indicates that temperature and rainfall would increase on average by 1 to 1.5 degrees and 200mm per annum respectively. This means that new bean varieties would be required to allow communities to adapt successfully.

Based on simulations for these two communities, potentially adaptable bean varieties were identified in regional collections of beans held by CIAT and held by local communities in Uganda and Rwanda. Hoima at present has higher temperatures of between 23-27 degrees and precipitation of 700-1000 mm per annum. Nine potentially suitable accessions were identified from Ethiopia and Tanzania in the regional collections held by CIAT. 2050’s climatic conditions indicate increased temperatures and precipitation and using GIS based modeling, 29 accessions were identified from other parts of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, the Democratic republic of Congo and Ethiopia.

Local community seed bank’s roles in adapting to climate change

In addition, through an exchange visit between two community seed banks in Uganda and Rwanda, local farmers in both countries were able to identify potentially suitable local varieties. Through participatory varietal ranking of the local varieties they are currently growing and conserving these varieties in the community seed banks based on traits such as yield, drought tolerance, heat tolerance, water logging, taste and cookability. The Kiziba community seed bank in Sheema Mbarara district in Uganda holding a repository of the community’s 47 varieties of beans provided about 10 potentially suitable varieties identified by farmers. These were requested by farmers in Hoima and in Rwanda. Farmers in Bugesera and Gicumbi districts in Rwanda identified 10 varieties of beans that are potentially suitable for climate related stresses. An exchange of these varieties was organized between the two communities by national institutions.

Implications for agricultural and mutually supportive implementation of access and benefit sharing policies

Given that the potentially adapted materials from the regional collections held by CIAT are automatically included in the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing of the ITPGRFA, the exchange of varieties was facilitated through the use of SMTA. The varieties have been made available to the communities for testing on farm and on station, activities currently underway. This demonstrates and reiterates the importance of having facilitated access under the multilateral system. The varieties held by community seed banks are not automatically in the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing. They could only be exchanged through negotiation with relevant institutions in consideration of the current Ugandan 2007 ABS law and regulations. These require that negotiations concerning prior informed consent and transfer of material take place between the two countries and their relevant institutions, in practice the Uganda national gene bank which is in charge of PGRFA for food and agriculture and is the focal point for the ITPGRFA; the Uganda national council for Science and Technology (UNCST) which is the competent Authority for both the ITPGRFA and the CBD/Nagoya protocol and the National Environmental Management Agency (NEMA) of Uganda which is the focal point for CBD/Nagoya protocol.

This required a lengthy process in which institutions had to discuss who has the mandate to provide the requested germplasm under which conditions. Unfortunately, the existing policies and guidelines on ABS did not provide clear roles and mandates for institutions. Alternatively, the relevant institutions could have provided incentives for voluntary inclusion of these materials by communities in the multilateral system so that farmers in communities in Rwanda would be able to access them. Under the 2007 ABS law and regulations it seemed very difficult to realize this. Institutions in Uganda therefore decided to review the existing ABS regulations.

A need for mutually supportive implementation of ABS and recent policy developments

Uganda is a Party to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA). Having deposited instruments of accession on 25 March 2003, Uganda is obliged to provide facilitated access to genetic resources of 64 crops and forages that are under the management and control of the national government, and in the public domain. In return, Ugandan organizations and individuals are entitled to facilitated access to PGRFA of the same 64 crops held by the other 133 Treaty member states as part of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing. The process of national level Treaty implementation and domestication in Uganda has been going on since 2003, necessitating both institutional and collaborative efforts to meet Treaty obligations. Some of the key measures for a country’s implementation of the Treaty include: (i) creating legal space for its implementation; (ii) notifying the Treaty secretariat of materials which are held by public institutions and therefore in the MLS; (iii) providing a clear process for access to PGRFA in Annex1 and non-Annex 1 PGRFA; and (iv) promoting farmers’ rights and incentives for voluntary inclusions of materials not in the MLS and held by natural and legal persons. The process of treaty implementation has seen Uganda notify the Treaty secretariat of all of its collection under management and control of public institutions in 2014. About 700 collections of annex 1 crops were notified to the Treaty secretariat, of which more than 100 are bean accessions. In 2015, Uganda also became signatory to the Nagoya Protocol of the CBD, which governs access and benefit sharing (ABS) of all genetic resources.

Uganda has developed a national policy on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, but this has not yet been passed into law and awaits tabling through parliament. The country is also in the process of developing guidelines for ABS under the ITPGRFA in harmony with the provisions of the CBD and the Nagoya Protocol. A ministerial order was issued and a committee set up to provide modalities for harmonizing ABS laws under the Nagoya Protocol and the ITPGRFA and for strengthening institutional arrangements for their mutually supportive implementation. A memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was developed between the lead institutions, namely UNCST, NARO-PGRC and NEMA. The committee was requested to come up with interim measures for accessing plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (Statutory Instrument) in Uganda while the review of the ABS law is underway. The temporary procedure provides that all PGRFA be accessed through NARO-PGRC and be notified to the competent authority UNCST, that any PGRFA that is not in the MLS will be accessed through NARO in consultation with NEMA. UNCST provides clearance for all PGRFA. This has made it easier and clearer for all parties to have access to PGRFA which is important for climate change adaptation and ultimately for the country’s food security.

Participatory research and capacity building: climate resilience and seeds in Zambia

Identifying suitable germplasm for the future

By Gloria Otieno, Bioversity International and Charles Nkhoma, Community Technology Development Trust

Photo by: Annie Chikanji, Biodiversity Conservation Network

Maize varieties at the community seed fair in Chikankata, Zambia

Maize varieties at the community seed fair in Chikankata, Zambia. Photo credit: A Chikanji.

Farmers in most parts of Zambia report changes in climate and weather patterns including unpredictable rains; shifting and shortening of the growing season; increases in temperatures; and longer dry spells. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) What’s in it for Africa? southern Africa has experienced an increase in annual average, maximum and minimum temperatures since the early 1990s with the most significant warming occurring during the last two decades.  Minimum temperatures have risen more rapidly compared to maximum temperatures over inland southern Africa (IPCC AR5). In Zambia where maize is the staple food crop, production of maize is predicted to decrease by up to 20% in some places by 2050 under such temperature and precipitation scenarios (Schlenker & Lobell, 2010, Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, No 1).  One adaptation strategy is to identify varieties of maize that can withstand these temperature and precipitation changes as well as the shortening of the growing season. Another strategy is to switch to more resilient crops such as millets and sorghum.

To build capacity, Bioversity International, in collaboration with Community Technology Development Trust (CTDT), Zambia, organized a five day training workshop in Lusaka, Zambia, 24th-28th August 2015, on resilience of seed systems and adaptation to climate change, bringing together scientists, breeders, Geographic information system (GIS) specialists, climate change specialists and extension workers. Two communities, Chikankata and Rufunsa, were identified by CTDT, based on their vulnerability to climate change and reduction in productivity over the last couple of years. An analysis of their weather and climate was done using meteorological data and predictions of 2050s climate. According to the analysis, the two communities are already experiencing shorter growing seasons, unpredictable rainfall and longer dry spells. Predictions for the 2050s indicate a general increase in mean temperatures by 1 degree Celsius, a relatively shorter growing season and a slight increase in precipitation. GIS and climate modelling techniques were used to identify climate challenges in the two communities and identify suitable maize and sorghum varieties from the national genebank as well as the international collections already in the multilateral system of the Plant Treaty.

Through participatory exercises and a visit to a community seed fair in Chikankata (see photo), local diversity within the community was assessed to determine whether these meet the community’s needs. Traits that are required and preferred for present and future climate change adaptation were also identified. An assessment of local diversity of maize reveals that there are three local maize varieties that have promising traits in terms of early maturity, taste, high yielding and resistance to pests and diseases. Sources for accessions of sorghum and maize were found by searching through national genebank accessions and international sources such as GENESYS (global portal to information about Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture). These can now be tested with farmers to compare their performance with local promising varieties.  See map below showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050s and the selected accessions from those areas.

Maps showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050’s and the selected accessions from those areas.

Maps showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050’s and the selected accessions from those areas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For further information about capacity building for resilient seed systems visit http://bit.ly/seeds-resource-box.

Participatory research and capacity building: climate resilience and seeds in Zimbabwe

By Gloria Otieno, Bioversity International and Patrick Kasasa, Community Technology Development Trust

Photos by:  Tinashe Sithole, Community Technology Development Trust

Assessing local diversity in the Chibika Community seedbank, Zimbabwe

Assessing local diversity in the Chibika Community seedbank, Zimbabwe

Global climate change raises major concerns for developing countries. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) What’s in it for Africa? Africa’s climate is changing and the impacts are already being felt. Southern Africa has experienced an increase in annual average, maximum and minimum temperatures. The most significant warming has been during the last two decades. Minimum temperatures have risen more rapidly compared to maximum temperatures over inland southern Africa. In Zimbabwe and Zambia there have been modest decreases in rainfall. Seasonal rainfall patterns, such as the onset and duration of rains, frequency of dry spells and intensity of rainfall have changed. More frequent dry spells, coupled with more intense daily rainfall, over a shorter period of time have seen a shortening of the growing season. For example in some districts of Zimbabwe, research and meteorological reports indicate that the rainy days have reduced from 32 days to 28 days in a span of two years. The impact of this will be largely felt in the agricultural sector where climate change is likely to affect agricultural output leading to food insecurity and loss of livelihoods for rural farmers. One of the longer term adaptation strategies is to identify germplasm that is suited and adaptable to the changing climate both at present and in the future.

Participatory exercise in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe district of Zimbabwe.

Participatory exercise in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe district of Zimbabwe.

In view of this, Bioversity International, in collaboration with the Community Technology Development Trust of Zimbabwe (CTDT), organized a training workshop, in Harare, 11-15 May 2015, on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, bringing together more than 20 scientists, breeders, GIS specialists, climate change specialists and extension workers. At the workshop, participants learned GIS and climate modelling techniques to identify climate challenges in selected communities in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe (UMP) and Tsholotsho districts in Zimbabwe and further identify germplasm that could be used in the future. Participants also visited a community seedbank in UMP and conducted participatory exercises to identify climate challenges; assess local diversity within the community and determine whether these meet their needs; and identify traits that they need for present and future climate change adaptation.

Figure 2: Map showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050 and the selected accessions from those areas (using DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling).

Figure 2: Map showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050 and the selected accessions from those areas (using DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling).

Results from the exercises reveal that these communities are facing increased minimum and maximum temperatures and shorter rainy days. An analysis of 2050 climate using one climate model – DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling – also reveals that mean, minimum and maximum temperatures will increase and although rainfall will increase slightly, it is likely to be more erratic with shorter rainy days (see Figure 2). Farmers identified the following traits, in order of importance, as some of the characteristics that they would want to see in a variety being bred for future climates: 1) early maturing; 2) high yielding and 3) resistant to pests and diseases.
By looking at accessions from national genebanks and international sources such as GENESYS (global portal to information about Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture), the group identified accessions of finger millet, sorghum and pearl millet which will now be tested with farmers.

Participants in the training workshop on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, 11-15 May 2015, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Participants in the training workshop on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, 11-15 May 2015, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Outputs by GRPI project partners

We are delighted to share news about some outputs recently made available from the national teams in the GRPI2 project, and others that are under development, but will be finished soon.  Some of these are available electronically and we include the links.

Bhutan
1.    National Biodiversity Centre (NBC). (forthcoming) A study on the history of the introduction and adoption of important food crops in Bhutan. Rice, Maize, Potato and Chili. NBC, Bhutan.
2.    Phuntsho, U. and Vernooy, R. (in press). Making technology transfer work: case studies of the food processing sector in Bhutan.
3.    Tamang, A. and Dukpa, G. (in press). Bhutan: the Bumthang community seed bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.

Burkina Faso
1.    Jade (2014). Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture: 10 questions pour en comprendre l’essentiel (un poster à l’intention des chercheurs)/a poster for researchers. Download the file.
2.    Jade (2014). Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (un dépliant en français reprenant l’essentiel des messages du traité)/a leaflet summarizing the key elements of the Treaty. Download the file.
3.    Jade (2014). Banque de genes: Le coffre-fort de la future generation (bande dessinée vidéo en français scénarisant le contenu du traité et de son système multilateral). Idée originale: Souleymane Ouattara. Scénario: Souleymane Ouattara, Gaoussou Nabaloum et Pascal Ouédraogo, alias ‘Ledon’ (an animated video about the Treaty and the MLS)
4.    Jade (2014). Et si le tô venait à disparaître? (un film sur les enjeux du traité à partir de cas et de témoignages d’acteurs) Réalisation: Souleymane Ouattara. (a film about the Treaty based on examples and viewpoints)
5.    Jade (2014) Les graines de vie d’hier, d’aujourd’hui et de demain (un magazine radiophonique en langue nationale mooré de 45 minutes). Réalisation: Gaoussou Nabaloum. (a radio broadcast in the Moore’ language about the Treaty)

Costa Rica
1.    Cabrera Medaglia, J. (2014) La implementación del Tratado Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica : Recomendaciones legales y de política. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica . Download the file.
2.    Cabrera Medaglia, J. (2014) Indentificación de las posibles autoridades nacionales competentes para la promoción de la implementación del Tratado Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica. Download the file.
3.    CONAREFI (2014) (set of fact sheets). Fortalecimiento de las capacidades nacionales para la implementación del Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura en Costa Rica
4.    Elizondo Porras, F.L., Araya Villalobos, R., Hernández Fonseca, J.C. Martínez Umaña, K. (in press). Costa Rica: Unión de Semilleros del Sur.  In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.
5.    Vásquez Morera, N. and Solano Sánchez, W. (2014). Diagnóstico de instituciones nacionales y regionales que conservan recursos fitogenéticos para alimentación y agricultura en Costa Rica. Bioversity International, Rome and Comisión Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos, San José, Costa Rica

Guatemala
1.    Galluzzi, G. and Lapeña, I. (in press). Guatemala: Community seed reserves restore maize diversity. .  In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.
2.    Lapeña, I., Vásquez, F. and Say, E. (2014). El Tratado Internacional sobre Recursos Fitogenéticos para La Alimentación y la Agricultura (TIRFAA) en Guatemala. Proceso de implementación del Sistema Multilateral de Acceso y Distribución de Beneficios. Download the file.

Nepal
1.    Dilli, J., Manisha, J. and Pitambar, S. (in press). Nepal: the community seed bank in Tamaphok. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge

Rwanda
1.    Policy brief (forthcoming). Implementing the ITPGRFA and Nagoya protocol in Rwanda: implications for ABS.
2.    Niyibigira T., Nyirigira A. and Otieno G. (forthcoming). Stakeholders in Technology transfer in Rwanda: the case of Biofortified beans.
3.    Dusengemungu, L., Ndacyayisenga, T., Otieno, G., Nyirigira, A.R. and Gapusi, J.W. (in press). Rwanda: the Rubaya community gene bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge

Uganda
1.    Zaake E., Mulumba J.W., Otieno G. and Ogwal R. (forthcoming). The History of Crops Domestication and Interdependence: Case studies of Major Staples in Uganda.
2.    Mulumba J.W., Otieno G. and Ogwal R. (forthcoming). Networks matter: Systemic interactions and coalitions in the implementation of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Uganda.
3.    Adokoracha, J.; Kiwukaa, C., Zaakea, E.; Nankya, R. and Mulumba, J.W. (forthcoming). Stakeholders involvement in technology transfer in Uganda.
4.    Policy brief (forthcoming) Policy implementation and legal space for the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) in Uganda.
5.    Mulumba, J.W., Nankya, R., Kiwuka, C., Adokorach, J., Otieno, G., Kyomugisha, M. Fadda, C. and Jarvis, D.I. (in press) Uganda: the Kiziba community gene bank. In: Vernooy, R., Shrestha, P. and Sthapit, B. Community Seed Banks: origins, evolution and prospects. Earthscan from Routledge.

New publication: Climate-smart technologies in Rakai Uganda

The role of networks in diffusion and uptake of climate-smart technologies in Rakai, Uganda. Report of project initiation workshops, 5-9 May 2014.

The role of networks in diffusion and uptake of climate-smart technologies in Rakai, Uganda. Report of project initiation workshops, 5-9 May 2014.

The role of networks in diffusion and uptake of climate-smart technologies in Rakai, Uganda. Report of project initiation workshops, 5-9 May 2014.

This report summarizes the first steps of a project to analyze the role of networks in the diffusion and uptake of climate-smart technologies in Rakai, Uganda. The activity is part of the Policy Action for Climate Change Adaptation (PACCA) project funded by Climate Change for Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). We held two workshops. The first was a participatory assessment with farmers in Rakai to understand their perceptions of climate change and resilience of their landscapes, using “indicators of resilience in socio-ecological production landscapes (SEPLs)”. The second was a workshop to develop the project work plan and tools, including a forthcoming smallholder farmers survey on networks, technologies and practices to better understand how farmers in Rakai communicate and exchange knowledge about farming practices.

The publication is now available from Bioversity International.  Presentations made at the planning meeting are available here: Caroline Mwongera Trade Off Analysis; Edidah Ampaire CCAFS PACCA_Policy Initiative; Eliezer Moses CCAFS in Tanzanzia; Michael Halewood PACCA Policy Network Survey; Geoffrey Lubinga State of the environment in Rakai district

Crop diversification strategies for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam

Presenting group work during workshop in Lao. Credit: Bioversity International/RVernooy

Presenting group work during workshop in Lao. Credit: Bioversity International/RVernooy

Ronnie Vernooy, Bioversity International and Vongvilay Vongkhamsao, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute of Laos write about crop diversification strategies for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, following a workshop held in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 2-3 October 2014.

The governments of Cambodia and Lao PDR have made strong commitments to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation into their national and sectorial development policies and action plans. Vietnam has also started to address climate change adaptation at national and sub-national levels.

Governments in all three countries have identified a series of agriculture-based interventions as priorities to strengthen the resilience of smallholder farmers, most notably, crop diversification. How to practically implement effective policy measures that benefit smallholder farmers, however, remains a challenge. Research could help develop a number of pilot experiences at sub-national scale to test and assess promising measures.

Continue reading on the Bioversity website.

 

Announcement: Climate-Smart Agriculture Conference

We are pleased to circulate this announcement for the Climate-Smart Agriculture 2015 Global Science Conference, 16-18 March 2015, Montpellier, France.

Climate smart agriculture is a way to achieve short and long term agricultural development priorities in the face of climate change and serve as an integrator to other development priorities. It seeks to support countries and other actors in securing the necessary policy, technical and financial conditions to enable them to:

– Sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes in order to meet national food security and development goals
– Build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change;
– Seek opportunities to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases and increase carbon sequestration.

Submit abstracts by 30 November 2014. Early bird registration by 31 December 2014.