L’accentuation d’un risque de perte des ressources génétiques dans le contexte du changement climatique au Burkina Faso

L’équipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr.Joseph KI-ZERBO du Burkina Faso, lauréat du 11e Forum national Recherche Scientifique et des Innovations Technologies (FRSIT) portant sur le thème Adaptation et résilience au changement climatique : Place et rôle de la science, de la technologie et de l’innovation, présente en quelques lignes l’étude de sa recherche.

L’étude Impact du changement climatique sur la diversité génétique: une étude de cas à partir d’une collection de variétés traditionnelles de mil [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] du Burkina Faso conduite par L’équipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr.Joseph KI-ZERBO du Burkina Faso présentée à l’occasion du 11e Forum national Recherche Scientifique et des Innovations Technologies (FRSIT) a obtenu deux prix dont celui du prix du Président du Faso et celui de l’Université Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO.

Dans le contexte du changement climatique dont l’Afrique Subsaharienne est victime depuis plusieurs décennies, la perte de la biodiversité agricole se pose avec acuité.

Une recherche de l’Equipe de Génétique et Amélioration des Plantes de l’Université Ouaga I Pr. Joseph KI-ZERBO observe que parmi les espèces céréalières, le mil présente un faible taux de diversité génétique dans les aires de son centre d’origine comme le Burkina Faso.

L’équipe a étudié l’effet des précipitations sur les dates de semis durant les trois décennies passées, la variabilité et le polymorphisme à partir d’une collection du mil réalisée à l’échelle nationale. Il a montré que ce faible taux de diversité génétique s’explique par le changement climatique qui a conduit à un décalage progressif des dates de semis des agriculteurs ruraux, d’où l’abandon des variétés les moins rustiques et cela inquiet pour l’avenir, la diversité de cette ressource génétique en tenant compte d’un changement climatique annoncé.

Le mil est réputé être la meilleure céréale en ce qui concerne la contribution des plantes cultivées dans la sécurité alimentaire pour des millions de populations vivant en Afrique Subsaharienne. Le mil a un impact significatif dans l’économie du pays. La consommation moyenne actuelle de mil par jour et par habitant au Burkina Faso est d’environ 70 grammes. Si les auteurs ont étudié le mil, culture prédominante au Burkina Faso, après le sorgho, ils affirment que l’impact du changement climatique va au-delà de cette espèce et interpelle les acteurs du politique agricole à initier des stratégies de conservation et de gestion des ressources génétiques afin de répondre à une meilleure adaptation du changement climatique.

Mais, pour que chaque communauté rurale puisse obtenir un apport nutritionnel lié à ses habitudes alimentaires, il a lieu à une conservation de la diversité génétique par les programmes de recherche agricoles nationaux. Une des limitations de développement de cette espèce est liée au fait qu’elle est pratiquée dans les zones les plus marginales et mal conservée. Ces variétés traditionnelles du mil parmi lesquelles figurent les meilleures souches de tolérance au changement climatique, à certaines maladies et autres facteurs pourraient présenter une solution pour accroître le potentiel d’utilisation de cette espèce dans le contexte du changement climatique.

La recherche est realisée dans le cadre du projet Renforcement des capacités nationales pour la mise en oeuvre du Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture au Burkina Faso, avec l’appui technique de Bioversity International et le soutien financier du gouvernement de la Hollande.

Pour plus de détails sur la communication, personnes à contacter :

Bougma Lardia Ali, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

Sawadogo Mahamadou, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

Ouédraogo Hamed Mahamadi, Université Ouaga I Pr. Joesph KI-ZERBO (Burkina Faso)

 

 

Advertisements

Implementing the Treaty in Nepal: new book

Joshi BK, P Chaudhary, D Upadhya and R Vernooy (editors). 2016. Implementing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Nepal: Achievements and Challenges. Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development, Pokhara, Nepal; Nepal Agricultural Research Council and Ministry of Agricultural Development, Kathmandu, Nepal; and Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.

This book, with contributions from national partners in Nepal and Bioversity International, documents the results of the research and capacity development efforts to implement the ITPGRFA in Nepal. Its chapters cover five main interrelated themes: national-level multi-lateral system policy development; policy actors and networks; germplasm flows and interdependence; farmers’ involvement; and technology transfer. ITPGRFA implementation in Nepal has made considerable progress, but the policy environment in Nepal could be further improved. A positive development is the drafting of new policy and legal instruments, such as the agro-biodiversity conservation and utilization act and regulations.

with-joshi-2

Co-editors BK Joshi and Ronnie Vernooy receive the first copy of the book. Photo: Bioversity International

The book can be freely downloaded.

http://www.bioversityinternational.org/index.php?id=244&tx_news_pi1%5Bnews%5D=8625&cHash=3d2de1c28f8bb265161c72cf4d3bdfb5

Realizing farmers’ rights through community biodiversity management

Farming communities attending rewards (in-kind and social recognition) handover ceremony for successful conservation of rare quinoa varieties. Huataquita, Cabanillas District, San Román Province, Puno Region, Peru. Credit: Adam G. Drucker.

Farming communities attending rewards (in-kind and social recognition) handover ceremony for successful conservation of rare quinoa varieties. Huataquita, Cabanillas District, San Román Province, Puno Region, Peru. Credit: Adam G. Drucker/Bioversity International

 A community-based approach to the management of agricultural biodiversity, including supporting community seedbanks, can empower and benefit smallholder farmers and farming communities economically, environmentally and socially. This approach makes implementing farmers’ rights at national level both practical and effective contributing to food and seed security, sustainable livelihoods and resilience. 

Two new briefs show how this approach makes implementing farmers’ rights at national level both practical and effective contributing to food and seed security, sustainable livelihoods and resilience.

•    Realizing farmers’ rights through community-based agricultural biodiversity management
•    Supporting community seedbanks to realize farmers’ rights

These briefs have been submitted to the 2016 Global Consultation on Farmers Right, held in Bali, Indonesia, 27-30 September 2016.

Read more about this work.

Ximena Cadima, from Fundación PROINPA, Bolivia presenting her work on defining and identifying farmers who are good producers of native and traditional seed varieties and putting into place incentives for these farmers to continue operating at the Farmers Rights Consultation. Credit: R. Vernooy/Bioversity Interantional.

Ximena Cadima, from Fundación PROINPA, Bolivia presenting her work on defining and identifying farmers who are good producers of native and traditional seed varieties and putting into place incentives for these farmers to continue operating at the Farmers Rights Consultation. Credit: R. Vernooy/Bioversity International.

 

Ronnie Vernooy presenting on “Community seed banks around the world – preconditions for their success” at the Farmers Rights Consultation.

Ronnie Vernooy presenting on “Community seed banks around the world – preconditions for their success” at the Farmers Rights Consultation. Credit: Pitambar Shrestha/LI-BIRD

Participatory research and capacity building: climate resilience and seeds in Zambia

Identifying suitable germplasm for the future

By Gloria Otieno, Bioversity International and Charles Nkhoma, Community Technology Development Trust

Photo by: Annie Chikanji, Biodiversity Conservation Network

Maize varieties at the community seed fair in Chikankata, Zambia

Maize varieties at the community seed fair in Chikankata, Zambia. Photo credit: A Chikanji.

Farmers in most parts of Zambia report changes in climate and weather patterns including unpredictable rains; shifting and shortening of the growing season; increases in temperatures; and longer dry spells. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) What’s in it for Africa? southern Africa has experienced an increase in annual average, maximum and minimum temperatures since the early 1990s with the most significant warming occurring during the last two decades.  Minimum temperatures have risen more rapidly compared to maximum temperatures over inland southern Africa (IPCC AR5). In Zambia where maize is the staple food crop, production of maize is predicted to decrease by up to 20% in some places by 2050 under such temperature and precipitation scenarios (Schlenker & Lobell, 2010, Robust negative impacts of climate change on African agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, Vol 5, No 1).  One adaptation strategy is to identify varieties of maize that can withstand these temperature and precipitation changes as well as the shortening of the growing season. Another strategy is to switch to more resilient crops such as millets and sorghum.

To build capacity, Bioversity International, in collaboration with Community Technology Development Trust (CTDT), Zambia, organized a five day training workshop in Lusaka, Zambia, 24th-28th August 2015, on resilience of seed systems and adaptation to climate change, bringing together scientists, breeders, Geographic information system (GIS) specialists, climate change specialists and extension workers. Two communities, Chikankata and Rufunsa, were identified by CTDT, based on their vulnerability to climate change and reduction in productivity over the last couple of years. An analysis of their weather and climate was done using meteorological data and predictions of 2050s climate. According to the analysis, the two communities are already experiencing shorter growing seasons, unpredictable rainfall and longer dry spells. Predictions for the 2050s indicate a general increase in mean temperatures by 1 degree Celsius, a relatively shorter growing season and a slight increase in precipitation. GIS and climate modelling techniques were used to identify climate challenges in the two communities and identify suitable maize and sorghum varieties from the national genebank as well as the international collections already in the multilateral system of the Plant Treaty.

Through participatory exercises and a visit to a community seed fair in Chikankata (see photo), local diversity within the community was assessed to determine whether these meet the community’s needs. Traits that are required and preferred for present and future climate change adaptation were also identified. An assessment of local diversity of maize reveals that there are three local maize varieties that have promising traits in terms of early maturity, taste, high yielding and resistance to pests and diseases. Sources for accessions of sorghum and maize were found by searching through national genebank accessions and international sources such as GENESYS (global portal to information about Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture). These can now be tested with farmers to compare their performance with local promising varieties.  See map below showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050s and the selected accessions from those areas.

Maps showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050’s and the selected accessions from those areas.

Maps showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050’s and the selected accessions from those areas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For further information about capacity building for resilient seed systems visit http://bit.ly/seeds-resource-box.

Participatory research and capacity building: climate resilience and seeds in Zimbabwe

By Gloria Otieno, Bioversity International and Patrick Kasasa, Community Technology Development Trust

Photos by:  Tinashe Sithole, Community Technology Development Trust

Assessing local diversity in the Chibika Community seedbank, Zimbabwe

Assessing local diversity in the Chibika Community seedbank, Zimbabwe

Global climate change raises major concerns for developing countries. According to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) What’s in it for Africa? Africa’s climate is changing and the impacts are already being felt. Southern Africa has experienced an increase in annual average, maximum and minimum temperatures. The most significant warming has been during the last two decades. Minimum temperatures have risen more rapidly compared to maximum temperatures over inland southern Africa. In Zimbabwe and Zambia there have been modest decreases in rainfall. Seasonal rainfall patterns, such as the onset and duration of rains, frequency of dry spells and intensity of rainfall have changed. More frequent dry spells, coupled with more intense daily rainfall, over a shorter period of time have seen a shortening of the growing season. For example in some districts of Zimbabwe, research and meteorological reports indicate that the rainy days have reduced from 32 days to 28 days in a span of two years. The impact of this will be largely felt in the agricultural sector where climate change is likely to affect agricultural output leading to food insecurity and loss of livelihoods for rural farmers. One of the longer term adaptation strategies is to identify germplasm that is suited and adaptable to the changing climate both at present and in the future.

Participatory exercise in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe district of Zimbabwe.

Participatory exercise in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe district of Zimbabwe.

In view of this, Bioversity International, in collaboration with the Community Technology Development Trust of Zimbabwe (CTDT), organized a training workshop, in Harare, 11-15 May 2015, on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, bringing together more than 20 scientists, breeders, GIS specialists, climate change specialists and extension workers. At the workshop, participants learned GIS and climate modelling techniques to identify climate challenges in selected communities in the Uzumba-Maranga–Pfumbwe (UMP) and Tsholotsho districts in Zimbabwe and further identify germplasm that could be used in the future. Participants also visited a community seedbank in UMP and conducted participatory exercises to identify climate challenges; assess local diversity within the community and determine whether these meet their needs; and identify traits that they need for present and future climate change adaptation.

Figure 2: Map showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050 and the selected accessions from those areas (using DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling).

Figure 2: Map showing areas with similar temperatures (minimum and maximum) in 2050 and the selected accessions from those areas (using DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling).

Results from the exercises reveal that these communities are facing increased minimum and maximum temperatures and shorter rainy days. An analysis of 2050 climate using one climate model – DIVA-GIS crop suitability modelling – also reveals that mean, minimum and maximum temperatures will increase and although rainfall will increase slightly, it is likely to be more erratic with shorter rainy days (see Figure 2). Farmers identified the following traits, in order of importance, as some of the characteristics that they would want to see in a variety being bred for future climates: 1) early maturing; 2) high yielding and 3) resistant to pests and diseases.
By looking at accessions from national genebanks and international sources such as GENESYS (global portal to information about Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture), the group identified accessions of finger millet, sorghum and pearl millet which will now be tested with farmers.

Participants in the training workshop on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, 11-15 May 2015, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Participants in the training workshop on resilience seed systems and adaptation to climate change, 11-15 May 2015, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Crop diversification strategies for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam

Presenting group work during workshop in Lao. Credit: Bioversity International/RVernooy

Presenting group work during workshop in Lao. Credit: Bioversity International/RVernooy

Ronnie Vernooy, Bioversity International and Vongvilay Vongkhamsao, National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute of Laos write about crop diversification strategies for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, following a workshop held in Vientiane, Lao PDR, 2-3 October 2014.

The governments of Cambodia and Lao PDR have made strong commitments to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation into their national and sectorial development policies and action plans. Vietnam has also started to address climate change adaptation at national and sub-national levels.

Governments in all three countries have identified a series of agriculture-based interventions as priorities to strengthen the resilience of smallholder farmers, most notably, crop diversification. How to practically implement effective policy measures that benefit smallholder farmers, however, remains a challenge. Research could help develop a number of pilot experiences at sub-national scale to test and assess promising measures.

Continue reading on the Bioversity website.

 

Co-management: overcoming the tragedy of the commons

Co-management meeting in Mongolia. Credit: Bioversity International/R.Vernooy

Co-management meeting in Mongolia. Credit: Bioversity International/R.Vernooy

Ronnie Vernooy writes about the co-management of pastoral lands in Mongolia, as a guest author on the Agriculture and Ecosystems Blog of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems.

Mongolian herders are maintaining the centuries old practice of moving from season to season to find new grasslands for their livestock, the primary source of their nomadic livelihood. Right now it is time to move to their winter camps and enter the most critical period of the year – the months of extremely cold weather.

The challenges of managing the risks that Mongolian nomadic pastoralists face are numerous and complex. Their livelihoods depend on a combination of individually owned livestock and collectively managed grasslands and other natural resources (water, wildlife and forest resources in particular) which remain State owned. Co-management, practiced in Mongolia for about 15 years, is a novel approach to deal with these challenges. Insights gained from the Mongolian co-management experience might be useful for other regions facing similar conditions.

Continue reading on the Agriculture and Ecosystems blog

Announcement: new website for the ABS Initiative

The ABS Capacity Development Initiative has launched its new website at http://www.abs-initiative.info

The website is a repository of knowledge and information on topics related to Access and Benefit Sharing and the ABS Initiative.  Since 2005 the ABS Initiative and its affiliates have produced over 800 documents and organized or participated at about 140 events.

The website has two main purposes:
•    Provide access to the most recent information on the ABS Initiative’s activities (e.g., events), impacts and outputs
•    Through a database, provide access to ABS and ABS Initiative related information and documents dating back to 2005/6 – the beginning of the ABS Initiative.

Send your suggestions and comments to tobias.dierks@giz.de of the ABS Initiative.

 

Sistemas de información geográfica para un mejor manejo de la información sobre la diversidad genética de nuestros cultivos

Por William Solano (CATIE, Costa Rica)

Dentro del proyecto “Fortalecimiento de capacidades nacionales para implementar el Tratado Internacional sobre los Recursos Fitogenéticos para la Alimentación y la Agricultura” organizamos un taller llamado “Sistemas de semillas resilientes: herramientas para el análisis y la adaptación de los cultivos al cambio climático”. El taller se celebró en el Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), en Turrialba, Costa Rica, del 5 al 7 de Marzo. Las sesiones se centraron en diferentes instrumentos para el manejo y el análisis de información geográfica y climatológica.

El Taller contó con la participación de un grupo de 26 investigadores de Guatemala y Costa Rica directamente relacionados con la conservación y el uso de recursos fitogenéticos de cultivos de importancia alimenticia para nuestra región tales como: frijol, maíz, arroz, papa, entre otros. A pesar que muchos de ellos contaban con gran experiencia en la conservación y el mejoramiento genético de éstos cultivos, para la gran mayoría era la primera vez que utilizaba herramientas de sistemas de información geográfica para hacer análisis de diversidad espacial, distribución de especies, climas análogos; o bien, conocer la existencia de bases de datos mundiales de germoplasma. Image   Fueron tres días en los que se recibió mucha información por parte de un grupo de expertos muy capacitados en estos temas. Al final, el grupo logró comprender la importancia que éstas herramientas pueden tener en sus actividades y  solicitaron tener otro taller para profundizar algunos aspectos que consideraron muy útiles y a la vez utilizar sus propias bases de datos para los análisis con dichas herramientas. Image

Notification from Treaty Secretariat – Call for proposals 2014

The Secretariat of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture have announced on their web site:

Call for Proposals 2014: Benefit-sharing Fund

Any governmental or non-governmental organization, including farmers and farmers’ organizations, genebanks and research institutions, as well as regional and international organizations, based in eligible countries that are Contracting Parties to the International Treaty, may apply for grants under the Third Call for Proposal of the Benefit-sharing Fund. Deadline is 5 May 2014, 24:00 Rome time.

Notification available in English –  French –  Spanish –  Arabic

Follow the link in the notification letters for the full text of the call and submission form.